Saturday, January 31, 2009

The Piri Reis Map

Toward the end of the novel, I describe a piece of gazelle skin where Piri Reis, an admiral of the Turkish navy, drew a map of the world in 1513.

The Piri Reis map shows the western coast of Africa, the eastern coast of South America, and the northern coast of Antarctica. The northern coastline of Antarctica is perfectly detailed. The most puzzling however is not so much how Piri Reis managed to draw such an accurate map of the Antarctic region 300 years before it was discovered, but that the map shows the coastline under the ice. Geological evidence confirms that the latest date Queen Maud Land could have been charted in an ice-free state is 4000 BC.

Further and more accurate studies have proven that the last period of ice-free condition in the Antarctic ended about 6000 years ago. There are still doubts about the beginning of this ice-free period, which has been put by different researchers everything between year 13000 and 9000 BC.

The question is: Who mapped the Queen Maud Land of Antarctic 6000 years ago?

In 1953, a Turkish naval officer sent the Piri Reis map to the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Bureau. To evaluate it, M.I. Walters, the Chief Engineer of the Bureau, called for help Arlington H. Mallery, an authority on ancient maps, who had previously worked with him. After a long study, Mallery discovered the projection method used. To check out the accuracy of the map, he made a grid and transferred the Piri Reis map onto a globe: the map was totally accurate and portrayed the Earth’s circumference with a precision of 50 miles. He stated that the only way to draw map of such accuracy was aerial surveying.

The Piri Reis map is something which is not supposed to exist: the relative longitudinal coordinates are accurate and the first instrument to calculate longitude was invented in 1761 by the English John Harrison.

In fact Piri Reis himself admitted he based his map on older charts, such as
the "Dulcert's Portolano", year 1339, where the latitude of Europe and North Africa is perfect, and the longitudinal coordinates of the Mediterranean and of the Black sea are approximated of half degree. Then there’s the "Zeno's chart", year 1380. It shows a big area in the north, going up till the Greenland. Another amazing chart is the one drawn by the Turkish Hadji Ahmed, year 1559, in which he shows a land stripe, about 1600 Km. wide that joins Alaska and Siberia. Such a natural bridge has been then covered by the water due to the end of the glacial period, which rose up the sea level.

Oronteus Fineus was another one who drew a map of incredible precision. He too represented the Antarctic with no ice-cap, year 1532. These maps show Greenland as two separated islands, as it was confirmed by a polar French expedition which found out that there is an ice cap quite thick joining what it is actually two islands.

Although it doesn’t disturb my slumber one bit (I’m usually asleep before my head hits the pillow), I wonder who was the cartographer from whose measurements these maps sprang and how on earth did he manage such accurate readings.

Thursday, January 29, 2009

The colors of the rainbow

This is a diagram of the disks, the size of casino chips, which Paul Reece must rescue from the sphere, several miles below the Congo Ituri Forest.

Wednesday, January 28, 2009

Rolf Bender

The Rolf featured in the novel it’s based on a real person. Rolf Bender is a German polymer scientist, specialised in fluorescence. Over the past twenty-five years we’ve shared priceless moments. Like the night he dragged me into a private gay club, intent on testing on the patrons his new fluorescent nail polish.

Monday, January 26, 2009


In a paragraph describing the Ituri jungle I mention “Celtis”.
Jennifer Williams, from Wisconsin, wrote to warn me that Celtis, the Common hackberry, is a tree native to North America and not Africa.

I remembered seeing Celtis everywhere in Congo and checked to ascertain I wasn't imagining things.

Celtis is a genus comprising more than fifty species of trees. In my book I was referring to Celtis africana, the African celtis. Celtis africana is commonly known as white stinkwood, because of the unpleasant smell of the freshly cut wood, and its pale colour.

VERDOORN, I.C. 1956. Celtis africana. The Flowering Plants of Africa 31: t. 1210.

Saved by the bell... this time. I bet there are countless gaffes in my novels, waiting for an eagle-eyes reader to point them out. Thank you, Jennifer.

Bookspotcentral interview with Carlos J Cortes

The interviewer opened with:

Carlos J. Cortes’s debut novel, Perfect Circle, is one that is so polished and exciting you might expect it to have been written by someone with many more novels under his belt. It’s a novel that, as the back of the book states, “asks if man and nature are fated to clash - or if the right man can break the cycle.”

I was impressed with the book’s tightly wrought narrative, the suspenseful fast pace of the plot, and the realistically motivated characters enough to ask Carlos if he would grant me the privilege of doing an interview with him, and I and the staff at BSC are pleased that he kindly agreed to my request. And now, on to the questions . . .

You can read the complete interview at:

Sunday, January 25, 2009

Future review of Perfect Circle

I've just heard from Dell Magazines that PERFECT CIRCLE will be reviewed in June 2009 issue of Asimov’s Science Fiction.

Sounds good, but I'm apprehensive. I thought Asimov's Science Fiction favored hard SF, and my cross-genre work doesn't fit into such a category. My writing is far closer to Lincoln & Child's. Still, we shall see.

I planned to advertise in the same issue, but after checking my depleted piggybank I shelved the idea until one of my novels hits The Times bestseller's list.

What do you mean by "Asimov Science Fiction will go broke if they have to wait that long"? Ye of little fath...

Saturday, January 24, 2009

How it all started

According to Darwin, evolution is a process that can be summarized as the survival of the fittest. Yet there are countless examples that seem to contradict that. Some of nature’s changes are too swift to be explained solely by linear evolution. I dreamed up a mechanism that could account for these leaps in evolution and the result was the Perfect Circle concept.

Writing it was another matter. From idea to proofread manuscript, it took eight years. But this is a little misleading. The original Perfect Circle was over half a million words. When I realized the impossibility of its publication in a single volume I separated the story into four parts and structured four novels:

Bad Water
This novel narrates the genesis of the International Mining Corporation in the Alaskan gold rush and tells the story of Hugh Reece,the corporation's owner, and his attempts to cover up a vast ecological disaster in Bangladesh. Paul Reece, a geologist and heir to the IMC empire, sides with the thousands dying from the Minamata disease caused by the corporation.

When at the end of WWII Patton searched the Mekkers mine for the III Reuich bank deposits he discovered that almost six tons of gems, spoils from the concentration camps, had dissappeared. In this adventure Paul Reece chases the gem's elusive trail.

Perfect Circle
Already published under the same title by Bantam.

The last novel explores the difficulties the survivors of a global cataclysm would face in an unstable world and the choices, sometimes harrowing, a group of humans must face to have a chance of surviving.

My agent spotted an opening for a SF work and, since Perfect Circle was the only part that could possibly slot into such a genre, offered it to Bantam and they eventually bought it.

The Prisoner is my next novel for this year and I'm hoping to have Light Bondage, on which Bantam has an option, ready for 2010. As to the remaining three novels that once were part of Perfect Circle... we shall see.